Wednesday, June 25, 2008

How Disc Brakes Work

Without a braking system, motor vehicles would be impractical for us to use. They help us stop our cars, maintain traction in emergency situations, and if you brake while in a turn, they help with that too. But many people may not understand how they work or what it takes to stop a 2,000 + lb. vehicle. In the following paragraphs, I will describe the basic components of a brake system, how it works, and how you can improve your braking system.

Although brake systems are highly engineered systems that are designed for safety and reliability, they are fairly easy to understand you know what the components are. There are two main types of brakes found on cars and trucks; disc brake systems and disc/drum brake combination systems. Older vehicles will have disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes in the back. Most modern vehicles have disc brakes at all four wheels, so I will be focusing primarily on that and will not cover drum brakes in this article.

The typical components of a disc brake system are: the pedal, the master cylinder, hard brake lines, soft brake lines, brake calipers, brake pads, and brake rotors. There can also be secondary or slave cylinders and Anti-Lock Braking (ABS) components too, but we’ll forget about those for now. The brake pedal is obviously located inside the vehicle and the master cylinder is mounted to the firewall which is found under the hood. When you push the brake pedal, it leverages the master cylinder to push brake fluid through the brake lines. The brake lines are attached to the master cylinder and run to the brake calipers found at each wheel. The brake calipers contain anywhere from one to eight pistons in them. The brake fluid forces the pistons to compress the brake pads onto the brake disc. The brake rotor, AKA brake disc, is attached to the hub which is attached to the axle. So the brake pads compress onto the rotors and create lots of friction, which in turn slows you down.

Is your vehicle no longer stopping like it used to? Got the need for speed and want to make sure you can stop as fast as you go? Do you now have the need to tow heavy payloads with your truck? Here are some tips to improve brake feel, response, and stopping distance.

Brake feel can be defined as the feedback the brake system gives to the driver. That feel is delivered through the pedal. The biggest things you can do to improve feedback from the brake pedal is better brake fluid and stainless steel brake lines. All cars sold in the US must have DOT 3 brake fluid; this is the standard off-the-shelf fluid and the rating DOT3 requires that a threshold boiling point to be met. If brake fluid boils, your brakes won’t work. For most applications, DOT3 is safe and it is recommended for the average driver. If you like spirited drives, participate in road racing, or just want better pedal feel, try using a DOT4 approved brake fluid. It should give you a firmer pedal and higher performance, but be careful because DOT4 needs to be changed more frequently than DOT3, which translates into higher vehicle maintenance costs. You can also install stainless steel brake lines, which don’t flex as much as the rubber ones that come standard on most vehicles. The reduction in brakeline flex means improved brake feel. Another good option to improve brake feel is a master cylinder brace, which further reduces flex in the brake system.

Brake response is primarily affected by the brake pads and rotors. Some brake pads have more “bite” than others; the ones that bite faster respond better, but they can be difficult to live with in everyday life. Performance pads are a good option for improving response, especially if the pads need to be replaced anyway. New brake rotors can also improve the response you get when you hit the pedal, but not as much as performance brake pads will. Where rotors will really make a difference is when you are descending a mountain road and are on the brakes frequently. New rotors can make your brake pads perform at their best for sustained periods of time due to better cooling and out-gassing technologies.

It is important to realize that brake feel and response have almost nothing to do with your stopping distance. Getting new brake pads, rotors, lines, and fluid can make the driver feel better and will make a vehicle stop safer, but it will do very little to help you stop faster. If you want to shorten your stopping distance, the only way to really achieve that is with a big brake kit. A big brake kit includes larger diameter rotors, upgraded calipers, and new brake pads. The larger diameter rotors are the key component here because they give the brake system more leverage to stop the wheels. Big brake kits can be expensive and usually require larger wheels to accommodate the larger brakes, but if shorter stopping distances are your goal, it is worth the time and investment. I know this is a lot of information to consume, but there is one last thing you want to think about. Your tires are what really slows your car and how much grip they have is a big factor in how quickly you stop. Make sure to invest in some decent tires to maximize your brake system and minimize stopping distances.

Monday, June 23, 2008

How do Exhaust Systems Work?

The exhaust system’s job is to carry and expel waste gases from the engine. A good exhaust system also reduces noise output and boosts performance as well. Companies like Gibson Performance, HKS, Greddy, 5Zigen, Fujitsubo, Tanabe, Sebring and Blitzs, design their exhaust systems for performance and to produce the nice rumbling sound that car enthusiasts enjoy while still complying with the legal sound limits. You won’t be able to mistake the noise of a damaged exhaust system for the deep rumble of system though. A damaged exhaust system means that the noise will be extremely loud, the fumes will linger near your passengers, your engine’s performance will be poor, and your fuel consumption won’t be as good.

Exhaust Manifold or Header
The exhaust manifold collects and combines the engine exhaust and moves it to the exhaust pipe. Aftermarket exhaust headers from companies like Gibson Performance are available and are designed to give your vehicle more horsepower and torque. Manifolds are designed for performance and have an individual tube for each cylinder, which then join into one tube. This tube is called the collector. Your manifold, whether it is stock, should decrease backpressure and increase the efficiency of your engine, giving your car more power and enhancing performance.

Catalytic Converter
The purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce the toxicity of the emissions from your engine. Toxic by-products are converted into substances that are less toxic inside the catalytic converter. Most converters are either three-way, which are used on most North American road-going, gasoline-powered vehicles for emission control, or two-way, which are widely used on diesel engines. The converter is made up of a core, a wash-coat, and the catalyst. The catalyst is usually made of a precious metal, which helps the oxidation of toxic emissions. Even if you add a high performance exhaust system, you will need to make sure that your catalytic converter is still functioning properly and adheres to the emissions codes for your area.

Just as the catalytic converter reduces air pollution, the muffler reduces noise pollution. The exhaust from your engine blows out through your muffler. Companies does manufacture performance mufflers to enhance the sound and power of your engine, while still falling within the acceptable noise regulations for North American roadways. A truly high quality muffler, will also make sure that the noise stays outside of your vehicle, leaving the cab quieter than other aftermarket mufflers. The muffler has a resonating chamber, which is tuned to cause destructive interference, where two opposing sound waves cancel each other out. Gibson high performance mufflers are tuned so that only some of the noise is cancelled out, resulting in a pleasing rumble as the vehicle drives by.

When deciding whether to get an after market exhaust system from a company like Gibson Performance, HKS, Greddy, 5Zigen, Fujitsubo, Tanabe, Sebring and Blitzs, it’s important to know how all the components of the system work together. You can then determine if you need the entire Gibson Performance system or if you only need an exhaust manifold or a muffler to get the performance you need from your vehicle. If you are not car suave, check with your mechanic to see whether they recommend replacing your entire exhaust system or just one or two components to get the performance and sound you expect.

Saturday, June 21, 2008

Car Enthusiasts - Rev up your desktops

Take a look at any of your average desktops. They are usually pretty plain and bland. Usually, it still has the default theme and wallpaper and looks just like the million other or so desktops out there.

Now there are a couple of things that you can do to spruce up your desktop and make it a bit more exciting. You can easily look online and find some good quality sites that would provide you with quality wallpaper, and desktops. Some even have themes for you to utilize as well.

Some of the most stunning wallpaper photos and backgrounds out there have to be those related to cars. Those car wallpaper graphics are so stunning that they literally seem to make the car jump off the screen.

Being a car enthusiast myself, I always try to get the most updated car wallpaper that I can. I just enjoy the look and feel of a brand new exotic car on my desktop. I might not be able to financially afford it, but I can easily revel in its beauty on a daily basis. You too can enjoy this feeling.

There are all sorts of different car wallpapers that you can find. They have created some on exotic cars, muscle cars and my favorite vintage cars. Car wallpapers are usually not that hard to find, but quality car wallpaper is.

By doing a search on Google you can usually find what it is you are looking for, whether it's a Shelby Mustang or even a Citroen. Whatever it is, just type in the name and style of the car followed by wallpaper and you should be able to find the right car wallpaper.

Once you have found the right one, there should be some dimension options for you to select. These dimensions are based on your monitor size so choose wisely. If you choose the wrong one, you will have a pixilated version of the wallpaper that will not look very good. It will look very distorted.

It doesn't take much to change your wallpaper. Just a couple of clicks of the mouse and you are done. The easiest way to change your wallpaper on a windows based computer is to right click on your desktop and select properties. Next, select the desktop tab and click on the browse button. Now, you just need to find the image that you downloaded and select that as your desktop. Press ok, and you should have your exciting new car wallpaper staring back at you.

If you choose the right one, you should feel an instant sense of gratification. Sometimes I even use it as motivation. I take a look at the exotic car and I just imagine what it would like to own it and to drive it. I can practically smell the motor oil already.

If you want to look through a pretty good selection of quality car wallpapers or car photos, you can take a look here at: Exotic Car Site

Friday, June 20, 2008

Alloy Wheel Sizing

When buying a set of alloy wheels, there are some important details you need to look at to see whether the wheels you are interested in will fit your car. The first is the PCD, or Pitch Circle Diameter, then there is the spigot size and the other is the offset, also referred to as the ET (which is from the German word 'Einpresstiefe' translated as 'insertion depth').

So what is PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter)?

Consider the wheel on your car and in particular the holes where the bolts hold the wheel to the car. Now imagine someone has taken a compass and from the center of the wheel has drawn a circle that passes through the center of the bolt holes. The diameter of this circle is the Pitch Circle Diameter and is measured in millimeters.

Although the PCD strictly only refers to the diameter of this circle, the PCD specification for a set of alloy wheels will also tell you the number of bolt holes, which will usually be either 4 or 5.

So if a wheel has a diameter of 100mm and has 4 bolt holes, the PCD specification will read as 4x100.

This does not however mean that the wheels from one car that have a PCD of 4x100 will necessarily fit another car whose tires have a PCD of 4x100. This is because they may have a different spigot size.

So what is the spigot size?

The spigot is located in the center of the wheel hub and is what holds the wheel in place while you locate the bolt holes.

On most after-market alloy wheels, the spigot hole will be bigger than the spigot on the wheel hub. To get around this you will need to use a spigot ring, this fits over the spigot on the wheel hub to increase the size to fit correctly within the spigot hole on the inside of the alloy wheel.

It would be possible to attach a wheel to a wheel hub without a correctly fitting spigot, although it would be tricky to hold in place while screwing in the bolts. This would not be advisable for another reason though. The other purpose of the spigot is to carry most of the weight of the vehicle. If it did not fit correctly all the weight of the car would carried by the bolts, which are not designed to do this. They would likely sheer off if you drove the car too hard or braked too heavily, which is obviously not good!

You may also find that the wheels go in and out of balance.

So what is the offset (ET)?

The offset is the measurement, in millimeters, between the center of the wheel (not side on, but turned to face you) and the bolt face (this is not the same as the outer most edge).

There are two different types of offset. There is a positive offset, where the bolt face is closer to the outside edge of the wheel than the center of the wheel, this is most common on normal road cars. And there is a negative, where the bolt face is closer to the inside edge of the wheel than the center of the wheel.

Therefore, if you put a wheel on your car that has a bigger positive offset than the previous one, the wheel will sit further in towards the car. And alternatively, if the positive offset is smaller, or even changed from a positive to a negative offset, the wheel will sit further out from the car.

For performance purposes you can improve grip and traction by going for wider wheels and tyres, but in order to do this you will need to go for wheels with a smaller offset to allow for the extra width in the wheel arch. If you went for wider wheels that had too high an offset, the tyres would probably make contact with the inside of the wheel arch, causing damage to both the tyre and the arch.

Wheel Size

When buying a new set of alloy wheels it is easiest to select a size that is equal to that of the current wheels, so you would replace 13” steel wheels with 13” alloy wheels.

But you may want to change the width and profile of the tires for better performance. Again it is best to try and approximately match the overall diameter of your current wheels and tires. To work out what you can go for you can use the specifications found on the side of your tires. This would look something like 165/80/R13.

We can work out the overall width of wheel and tire as follows:

The first number is the width of the tire and the second is the profile height expressed as a percentage of the width, so the profile height is 80% of 165mm. (165x80)/100 = 132mm. This is the height of the profile of the tire, this needs to be multiplied by two for the height on either side of the wheel. 132x2 = 264mm. This figure can be converted into inches by multiplying by 25.4. 264/25.4 = 10.39”. We then add the last number, 13, which represents the diameter of the wheel. 10.39+13 = 23.39”. So the total width of wheel and tire is 23”.

If we looked at a wider 15” tyre with the specification of 245/50/14 and did the same calculation:

(245x50)/100 = 122.5mm. 122.5x2 = 245mm. 245/25.4 = 9.63”. 9.63+14 = 23.65”.

So although the new wheel is wider, the profile of the tire is lower, making the overall width within a few fractions of an inch of the old wheel and tire.


Ultimately, unless you are planning on buying some second-hand wheels and tyres, or having them handed down to you, you will probably be buying them from a professional store, either in person or online. The best advice is simply to ask the experts, they will know exactly what PCDs, spigots, offsets and wheel/tires sizes will be appropriate for your car.

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

Nitrogen tyre inflation

Nitrogen tyre inflation is the process of inflating tyres with pure nitrogen. Usually, cars tyres are inflated with compressed air. Compressed air has some portion of it as nitrogen but not all of it. On the other hand, a Nitrogen inflated tyre has 95% nitrogen inside; unlike any other types of tyres. Nitrogen inflated tyres are mostly used in passenger aircrafts, Air Force jets, trucks, race cars and on vehicles those are used in mining and other industrial applications.

Several researches have shown that nitrogen inflated tyres are strong and long-lasting than other tyres. Therefore, the cars those run very fast or in hot temperature should have Nitrogen inflated tyres.

For inflating nitrogen in the car tyres, a special type of machine is required. In today’s context, all the service stations and gas stations do not have the machines to store and generate nitrogen. The machines that inflate nitrogen in car tyres are widely seen at air ports, mining fields and in racing tracks. Apart than the machines, portable bottles can be used to inflate Nitrogen into the tyres. However, the installed machines are cost effective compared to the portable bottles. Good news is, many gas stations are now installing such machines as demand for nitrogen tyres has increased in the recent past. Most tyre retailers those use the machines to inflate Nitrogen in the tyres of all kind of vehicles including passenger cars, four-wheel-drives, vans and light trucks.

Compared to compressed air, Nitrogen inflated tyres have many advantages. For example, Nitrogen inflated tyres keeps the temperature cooler compared to other types of types. If Nitrogen is used, tyres of the cars run much cooler. Cooler means longevity. Also, the pressure loss is slower in Nitrogen inflated tyres. It means, Nitrogen inflated tyres require less number of refilling, compared to other types of tyres. Additionally, the rubbers used in all types of tyres, including Nitrogen inflated tyres, are not 100% waterproof. Nitrogen is better compared to the compressed air, as it bleeds through the inner liner of tyre at a slower rate, meaning this type of tyres last long.

Most of the Formula 1 racing cars use Nitrogen inflated tyres as these types of tyres ensure more speed and reliability. Nitrogen inflated tyres are also used in situations where tyre temperatures gets high such as in aircraft or where the risk of explosion is high such as during handling hazardous materials. In such circumstances, Nitrogen offers better stability. Though only the aircrafts, mining vehicles and race cars use Nitrogen inflated tyres now; it is expected that within the next few years, mass people will start using this tyre. This is simply because, this type of tyres are best than the rest.

As nitrogen inflated tyres are better in so many ways, all the car drivers will soon start using these types for everyday purposes. A time will come when, almost all the vehicles’ tyres will be filed with nitrogen.


Alloy wheels are most preferred by vehicle owners because of their several advantages and specifically for their lightness. A lighter wheel significantly reduces the moment of inertia. This saves a considerable amount of power in turning the wheel. The other advantages are improved acceleration, improved braking, reduced stopping distance, lighter, sharper steering that gives a better feel and more responsive handling. The tyre temperatures and pressures are more stable, and there is improved wheel & tire balancing. The fuel consumption is also reduced. The smart looks will make your vehicle look simply stunning. Buy the original manufacturer’s wheel and do not buy any replicas.

List of wheel brand:

Wheels and Wheel Alloys for Improved Performance Of The Vehicle

Wheels offer a wide choice to customers along with safety and security.

Wheels add to the performance of the automobile and the safety of its occupants. The car buyer needs to know which variables make the wheels or the tyres outstanding. Wheels come in a large variety of chrome, machine polished & painted plain, hard wearing alloy & steel also but the most popular of them is alloy construction.

Light alloy wheels are largely used on racing cars for improved performance as well as presentation. One would expect to pay a substantial premium for this type of wheel compared to the norm. Special engineered lightweight wheels adorn race cars which are much lighter & stronger than normal aftermarket alloys & steel wheels.

Whilst steel wheels are available in limited colours & sizes suiting tough applications at a lesser cost they are in many instances supplied to keep the vehicle cost within range despite their lesser product characteristics.

Wheels are available aftermarket in numerous radial diameters & widths. Those who are keen on the appearance of their car are aware that the size of their wheel is most important in improving the look of their car.

Modifying the wheel diameter can be countered by reducing the tyre profile (height) in order to meet the engineering requirement of the car’s manufacturer.

Load ratings on tyres & wheels are critical in that they should meet the car’s engineering design so that the vehicle has stopping ability as required for the tyres & can carry the engineered weight of the loaded vehicle without failing in the case of wheels.

Aftermarket wheels should be appropriate to the quality of your vehicle. Your vehicle will be complimented when it has perfect tyres/wheels fitted that meet the load rating design.
Routine maintenance assures your vehicle wheels are in perfect shape & working condition.

Furthermore, appropriate maintenance of wheels assures longer tyre wear, assists that the tyres wear longer. At car servicing times it is important to check tyre life remaining as well as condition of the wheels & safety of the car. Wheels & tyres are vitally important in assuring best results in a safe & comfortable journey.

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Road block at USJ 18

Red dot Indicate the location of road block at
USJ 18 & 19.

Time: 9.00pm - onward
Day : Friday & Saturday night.Click image for see full size image.

Road block at Putra Height

Red dot Indicate the location of road block at
Putra Height.

Time: 9.00pm - 3.00am
Day : Friday , Saturday & Sunday night.

Click image for see full size image.

Friday, June 13, 2008

TigaDuaCellular base in Indonesia is known as PO Tiga Dua Cellular. They have launching their web site at . is a recognized distributor of wireless phones/accessories, and other various consumer electronics. They specialize in a wide range of GSM phones and accessories. They import more than 500 products such as PDA, cell phone, smart phone, digital camera, MP3 players and other accessories. They consist a product as Apple, Nokia O2, HTC, Black Berry, Samsung, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, Palm, Eten and Vertu.

The missions of this company are to provide the newest products on best prices with great service for the global market. Their give the prices which are close to those who are on wholesale. Tiga Dua Cellular Online shopping safe shopping on the net. To make sure their safe on the net, there using C.O.M.O.D.O Authentic & secure.They provide worldwide shipping to.

Click here to direct link to:

Friday, June 6, 2008

2008 Sepang Drag Battle: Round 2

Results Round 2

Class A – Open
(Turbocharged and supercharged allowed; Nitrous Oxide system allowed)

First: Dixon Chen Teck Sun (Mitsubishi Evo IV)

Second: Mohd Putra (Proton Wira)

Third: Mohd Farriz Fauzi (Nissan Skyline)

Fourth: Lai Wee Sing (Proton Satria)

Class B – 2WD Forced Induction
(Only one power adder allowed; 2WD vehicles only)

First: Mohd Zamri Ahmad

Second: Khairul Anuar

Third: Chua Soon Chuan

Fourth: Mohd Iqbal

Class C – 2WD Normally Aspirated
(only naturally aspirated engines allowed; NOS system prohibited)

First: Ahmad Firdaus Azman

Second: Mohd Maziz Abdullah (Honda)

Third: Mohd Iqbal Ismail

Fourth: Hanizam Alias

Class D – 2WD Limited
(engines 1600cc and below; only naturally aspirated engines; NOS system prohibited)

First: Mohd Yusof

Second: Mohd Fuad Ismail

Third: Mohd Aimi Abd Mutalib

Fourth: Mohd Rasul

Class E – K-Car
(Engines 1000cc and below; turbo-charged & supercharged engines allowed; NOS prohibited)

First: Azery Mohd Norzali (Perodua Kancil)

Mohd Fariz Nordin

Third: Mohd Nor Abdul Rahman

Fourth: Idris Abd Rahman

Class F – Avantech On The Road Class
(Engines 2000cc and below: turbocharged/supercharged prohibited; variable valve engine allowed; NOS prohibited; cars must be road legal)

V-Tec Category

First: Baharul Aslan Abu Bakar (Honda Civic)

Second: Suhaimi Hamid (Honda Civic)

Third: Mohd Reduan Baharuddin (Honda Civic)

Fourth: Ooi Wei Siong (Honda Civic)

Non V-Tec Category

First: Mezam Akram

Second: Mohd Johan Khairuddin

Third: Ahmad Nizam Ibrahim

Fourth: B. Geevan Baskaran

Class G – Campro
(Campro Naturally Aspirated engines; up to 1601cc; suspension, brake system; engine management; gearbox & ratio free)

First: Ahmad Firdaus Azman

Second: Mark Darwin

Heryandy Ramli

Fourth: Nor Azam

Tuesday, June 3, 2008

Speed Trap at Lebuhraya Pantai Timur (LPT) 01

Speed trap at Lebuhraya Pantai Timur (LPT) in Temeloh, Pahang. Red dot indicate location of PDRM put their camera on at day time. Speed limits 110km/h.

Beware of speed trap.